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    景亳之命中的命有什么含義?商湯為什么會選擇這個大會地點?

      “景亳之命”是發生在夏朝末年的歷史事件。商湯從舊都商丘北遷至景亳,又稱北亳、蒙亳。商湯在此告命天下,征伐四方,最終滅夏。

      “景亳之命”的“命”有何含義

      《左傳》為啥稱夏啟的諸侯大會為“享”,稱周武的為“誓”,而稱商湯的為“命”?主要有以下幾個原因:

      一、夏啟的“享”解決的是夏族內部的權利之爭問題,而商湯的舉措則是貨真價實的改朝換代的“革命”。《周易》有:“湯武革命,順乎天而應乎人,革之時大矣哉!”成湯滅夏是有文獻可考的中國古代史上的第一場“革命”,我認為,“景亳之命”的“命”首先有這一層意思。

      有人會說,周武的“武王伐紂”不也是革命嗎?是革命,但這已經不是首創了。所以善于用一字寓褒貶的《左傳》,就獨獨只給商湯的諸侯大會用了個“命”字。

      其二、在數以千年計的中國古代史中,“王權天授”的思想一直占據著統治地位。換句話說,凡揭起革命大旗的,沒有不把“受命于天”、“替天伐無道”作為口號的,商湯是有據可考的最重視宣示自己秉承“天命”的帝王。

      其三,從策略上看,夏啟側重于拿祭天享神來團結諸侯;周武側重于跟諸侯的盟誓,孟津之所以又名“盟津”,就是“孟津之誓”的注腳;商湯則嫻熟的運用了宣示“受命于天”這一策略,用向上天“請命”、“受命”,轉而拿“天命”、“帝命”對天下諸侯發號施令。宣示商湯所掀起的推翻夏桀之舉的合法性就是“景亳之命”的主題。

      關于這一點古代典籍可以佐證的很多。“帝命不違,至于湯齊。”(《詩·商頌·長發》);“古帝命武湯,正域彼四方。”(《詩·商頌·玄鳥》);“赫赫成唐(湯)……溥受天命,克伐夏祀。”(《叔夷鐘》)“湯乃命湯于鏕宮,用受夏之大命……屬諸侯于薄(亳),薦章天命。”(《墨子·非攻》)……這樣的例證很多,用不著一一列舉,由此再看《左傳》這個“命”的使用,真的十分貼切。

      商湯為什么要把舉行諸侯大會的地點選在“景亳”

    image.png

      夏啟召集諸侯祭天享神的地方是“鈞臺”,這也是很有用意的。我們由大量的文獻資料和現代考古知道,嵩山南面是夏族活動的老地盤,據《尚書》明確記載,夏禹的父親鯀就曾經被封為“崇伯”,其封地就在這里。嵩山本名“崇”,又名為“崧”、“嵩”。從現在的嵩山南面的禹縣、“禹王鎖蛟”處等地名看,《尚書》所載應該可信。夏啟之所以要在處于這一區域核心的“鈞臺”舉行諸侯大會,意在宣示此舉“師出有名”,是在執行夏族先王的意志,這一點是顯而易見的。

      還有一點需要明確,那就是,“鈞臺”是具有精神崇拜偶像作用的地點。

    image.png

      現在試圖解讀“鈞臺”的不少,但說得有道理的不多,大多只是說它的地理位置在哪里。有的甚至據夏桀曾“囚商湯于鈞臺”的話而得出結論說:“鈞臺”是夏王朝的監獄。此說實在教人不知所措!比如歷史上說那個皇帝或者后妃被軟禁(這應該也是“囚”的性質)到哪座皇宮里,這皇宮能算監獄嗎?

      對于“鈞臺”,筆者有不同的認知,現在就跟大家分享。

      “鈞臺”應該是具有當時最高禮法意義、在諸侯心目中象征著天子威權的禮法建筑。

      我們知道,古代象征帝王權力的建筑主要有都城、宮殿。其實,在更早的時候,祭臺也是這種象征。孟津有“會盟臺”,據說就是周武孟津誓師的遺址;《左傳》所說的晉文的“踐臺之盟”都說明了這一點。“鈞臺”應該是夏族在其“老區”的規模特大、規格彌高的祭臺,是夏人奉為至尊通過祭天、祭祖、享神來宣示禮法——的圣地,“鈞臺之享”其實就是“斗法”的策略。


    《路邊歷史編輯》

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